Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb&Co) heats to 300-400 oC and then shoots back up to seafloor vents provide 34% of heat in ocean water cools to 30-40 oC within a few cms and back to ambient 2-4 oC within a meter or so A possibility: hydrothermal vents. Hydrothermal vents form when magma-heated water escapes from inside the earth through cracks in the seafloor. Recognition of the rarity and vulnerability of vents is not new. April 2, 2009 Deep-Sea Mining of Seafloor Massive Sulfides: A Reality for Science and Society in the 21st Century. Hydrothermal vent zones are found at various depths, ranging from shallow waters to 4,000 meters (13,000 feet) below the surface. Put in place ISA management measures that prohibit mining on active vents and ensure that they are not affected by other ISA-approved activities. Since their discovery, deep sea hydrothermal vents have been suggested as the birthplace of life, particularly alkaline vents, like those found at ‘the Lost City’ field in the mid-Atlantic. As the oceanic crust stretches, it thins and is cracked by giant fissures. There has been little research into such plumes and it is yet unknown how they would travel, settle, or what level of smothering by plumes would kill vent animals. S. Ornes. October 11, 2012. New Deep-Sea Vents and Volcanic Activity Discovered in the Mariana Back-Arc ... (400 mile) stretch of Pacific seafloor in the vicinity of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument. 1719 N Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, Analyze This: Shipwrecks provide a home for bottom-dwelling fish, Ogre-faced spiders listen closely to snatch bugs from the air, This prehistoric woman from Peru hunted big game, Third major vaccine shows great promise against COVID-19, Explainer: Our atmosphere — layer by layer, Surprising long-haul dust and tar are melting high glaciers, Jupiter may have ‘sprites’ or ‘elves’ in its atmosphere, There’s water on sunny parts of the moon, scientists confirm, New device tells smiles from frowns — even through a mask, This artificial skin feels ‘ghosts’ — things you wish were there, How many vent fields? Hydrothermal vent zones are found at various depths, ranging from shallow waters to 4,000 meters (13,000 feet) below the surface. Some vent zones feature substantial concentrations of gold and silver. Perhaps the hadal trenches . article Sneak Peek: Future of Coral Reefs in an Acidifying Ocean . (Read more from the BBC about commercial deep-sea mining: "The secrets of the ocean floor".) Oxidation often involves oxygen atoms — but not always. There, it heats up and takes up reduced compounds — such as methane, hydrogen or sulphide — and heavy metals, but is devoid of oxygen. Vent zones contain polymetallic sulfides rich in copper and zinc. Hot seawater in hydrothermal vents does not boil because of the extreme pressure at the depths where the vents are formed. New estimates of vent field populations on ocean ridges from precise mapping of hydrothermal discharge locations, Rare earth elements plentiful in ocean sediments, Earth’s tectonic plates won’t slide forever, Life’s ultra-slow lane is deep beneath the sea, Whales get a second life as deep-sea buffets, One tiny sea parasite survives 200 times atmospheric pressure. Along cracks in the ocean floor, plumes of black and white superheated water pump relentlessly into the depths. When a molecule has not undergone oxidation it may be referred to as unoxidized. Deep-sea vents are undersea hot springs, where mineral-rich fluid gushes out of the ocean floor. sulfur A chemical element with an atomic number of sixteen. Large areas can separate hydrothermal vents and thus whale falls may serve as temporary oases, providing food to organisms dispersing across barren sediment environments. A long, linear, active volcanic region where ocean crust is formed is called a _____. Vents also occur on submarine volcanoes. Vol. resilience The ability to recover quickly from a setback. - The water around the vents … Such smoke signals can extend outward for tens of kilometers in any direction. E.T. Hydrothermal vents affect life far beyond the ocean floor, Baker adds. Active vent zones—generally found in areas of underwater volcanic activity and seafloor spreading—are often dramatic. Leading vent scientists and other experts have proposed that active sites be protected from mining in perpetuity. In the deep atlantic. Active vents demonstrate the viability of ecosystems largely independent of photosynthesis. The scientists scoured 1,470 kilometers (913 miles) of seafloor in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Mining an active vent site would destroy the organisms living there—many of them rare species known only from active vents—and gravely alter their critical habitat. He is also a coauthor of the new study. Vent zones contain polymetallic sulfides rich in copper and zinc. When first discovered in the 1970s, these oases in the deep sea were a complete surprise—Dr. genetic Having to do with chromosomes, DNA and the genes contained within DNA. “So there’s way more places on the seafloor where animals can survive.”. And these can house bizarre ecosystems. Employ an accessible, updatable scientific information database that identifies and characterizes all known vent sites. Determine criteria for delineating active and inactive vents. Live video lets anyone explore deep hydrothermal vent on seafloor. As the water comes into contact with the veins and channels of superheated, molten magma, the sea water is superheated. The hot water forms when seawater is heated in young ocean crust (usually close to spreading centers and areas of volcanic activity). Solved:Among over 2000 approved food additives: a. April 28, 2010. Within and around these active smokers are an abundance of chemosynthetic life forms that derive their energy from chemicals, in the absence of sunlight, in contrast to photosynthetic organisms. In economic terms the most promising underwater resources are seafloor massive sulfide deposits. The Microbes That Keep Hydrothermal Vents Pumping ... the Deep Sea. Giant tube worms, eyeless shrimps and ghostly white crabs thrive in and around the nutrient-rich hot water. On land, life tends to spring from the ploughed lines of a field, but in the deep sea … The cold seawater is heated by hot magma and reemerges to form the vents. The deepest vent located so far is in the Cayman Trough, which is the deepest point in the Caribbean Sea. These spreading ridges have at least three to six times as many hydrothermal vents as scientists had expected, a new study reports. Regions where tectonic plates are separating are known as spreading ridges. These hot, chemically reduced fluids rapidly mix with cold, oxidizing seawater, forming hydrothermal plumes that rise hundreds of meters off the seafloor and disperse hundreds of kilometers away from their source. HAGANTA, GUAM – A diverse team of scientists are returning from a 28-day expedition onboard R/V Falkor that has more than doubled the … November 10, 2020. Researchers found these vents spaced along the spreading ridges every 3 to 20 kilometers (1 to 3 miles). Enter your e-mail address above. Deep Sea Vents Are Openings In The Sea Floor Where Hot Water And Nutrients Spew Out. Sunday, August 27, 2017 • 6 to 8 p.m. Until now, seafloor scientists had thought vents were usually tens if not hundreds of kilometers apart, notes Edward Baker. Discoveries of marine genetic resources from vent zones have already led to new medical and industrial applications, and more are anticipated. As Shown To The Right, They Have A Rich Community Of Species. These include whale carcasses that sink to the seafloor (called “whale falls”) and “wood falls” from shipwrecks or trees cast into coastal regions. September 28, 2006. The plumes are created by disturbing the seafloor, and they are thought to be among the most harmful aspects of deep-sea mining. Earth’s surface rock (and the soil or sand above it) moves slowly atop shifting rocky slabs known as tectonic plates. “Vent worms like it hot.” Science News for Students. article The Discovery of Two Extreme Sea Stars. People who work in this field are known as oceanographers. Don't miss our latest facts, findings, and survey results in The Rundown, Deep-Sea Mining on Hydrothermal Vents Threatens Biodiversity, State Budget Offices Promote Data-Driven Decision-Making, Plans for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Lacks Details, States Can Help Small Businesses Recover From the Pandemic, States Can Shorten Probation and Protect Public Safety. These submarines have carried scientists into the deep. OCEAN NETWORKS CANADA/FLICKR (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Hydrothermal vents are openings in the seafloor out of which heated mineral-rich water flows. OOI-NSF / UW / CSSF. The ocean bottom is deep and dark, but far from lifeless. plate boundary (in geology) The edge of a tectonic plate, or the place where two or more tectonic plates meet. See the … Hydrothermal vents can be active, inactive, or somewhere in between. Discovery of the scaly foot snail has led to biologically inspired engineering applications, while studying vent tubeworms’ oxygen transport systems prompted improved organ transplant preservation. article Little Critters that tell a BIG Story: Benthic Foraminifera and the Gulf Oil Spill. The long-term in situ monitoring of hydrothermal vents can provide data for modeling the heat flux and plumes from hydrothermal discharges. Those earlier studies had missed roughly one in four vents because they had low temperatures and few visible particles. Bob Ballard calls them a far more important discovery than his finding of the wreck of the Titanic! Answer. Deep-sea vents. Deep-sea hydrothermal plumes occur where seafloor vents inject hydrothermal fluids replete with potential microbial energy sources such as H2S, Fe, Mn, CH4, and H2 into the deep oceans. In these volcanic areas, there are hot-water vents, giant mountain ranges, and deep … The ISA and its stakeholder community should: Receive our best conservation research bi-weekly—stunning photos, wins, and action alerts. By Charles Q. Choi ... at alkaline hydrothermal vents on the seafloor. Deep-sea chimneys form around hydrothermal vents from a buildup of minerals that flow to the surface in heated liquid — as hot as 750 degrees Fahrenheit (400 degrees Celsius). Because sulfur and its compounds can store a lot of energy, it is present in fertilizers and many industrial chemicals. Near these plate boundaries, seawater seeps down and gets heated by molten rock. He is an oceanographer at the University of Washington in Seattle. sea An ocean (or region that is part of an ocean). Jim Holden Hydrothermal venting from the seafloor on top of Axial Volcano in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, nearly a mile (1,500 meters) below the surface. Unlike lakes and streams, seawater — or ocean water — is salty. Deep-sea vent, hydrothermal (hot-water) vent formed on the ocean floor when seawater circulates through hot volcanic rocks, often located where new oceanic crust is being formed. “Venting Concerns.” Science News. “Rare earth elements plentiful in ocean sediments.” Science News. Sea-floor features like chimney-shaped vents can regenerate in weeks to years, but the deposit as a whole requires tens of thousands of years to concentrate economically interesting metals into zones separate from the predominant iron. New research shows that it teems with far more oases of life than anyone had imagined. That makes these especially hard to spot. “Undersea vent system active for ages.” Science News for Students. © Society for Science & the Public 2000–2020. The field of science dealing with these biological instructions is known as genetics. All rights reserved. We are driven by the power of knowledge to solve today's most challenging problems. ... destroy RNA. That makes it difficult to tell whether the “smoke” is coming from individual vents or some closely grouped cluster of them. Seafloor spreading generates new ocean crust, but it may also have created conditions necessary for the beginning of life on Earth. Bubbling carbon dioxide vent discovered on the seafloor off the Philippines . Vents also occur on submarine volcanoes. Life is typically sparse on the deep seafloor, where organisms endure high pressure, near-freezing temperatures and pitch-black darkness. Bone fractures are repaired in a process… EssayTaste View posts by EssayTaste Related Posts. These mineral riches are prompting discussions on whether hydrothermal vent zones might … Pew applies a rigorous, analytical approach to improve public policy, inform the public, and invigorate civic life. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Given the paucity of plume studies, the ISA should postpone any exploitation of vent sites until more research is conducted. oceanography (adj. Scientific investigation of deep-sea vents has yielded astounding discoveries, opened up important new avenues for science and begun to transform our understanding of life on this planet, and on others. This is known as a hydrothermal vent. plume (in geology) Fluids (air, water or magma typically) that move, largely intact, in a feather-like shape over long distances. Weekly updates to help you use Science News for Students in the learning environment. These mineral riches are prompting discussions on whether hydrothermal vent zones might be mined on a commercial basis. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys on Brothers volcano Northwest Caldera Wall. They discovered the first deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and—to their complete surprise—a lush community of exotic life thriving around them. These structures are referred to as hydrothermal vents, and the assortment of animals surrounding them are referred to as hydrothermal vent communities. Biodiversity losses could be severe. what part of the earth remains the mostly unexplored? On contact with cold, oxygenated seawater, the minerals in those hot fluids precipitate to build spire-like deposits called “vent chimneys”, and sometimes produce a “black smoke” of suspended particles that rises and disperses above the vents. The publication, as well as Science News magazine, are published by the Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education. This survey turned up 184 distinct vent sites. Hydrothermal vents mark the cracks in the seafloor where tectonic plates spread apart and hot magma poured out, forming new seafloor and creating giant, chimney-like openings … as a possible model for life on other planets. Within the hydrothermal vents are seafloor massive sulfides (SMS), whereby the vents create sulfide deposits containing valuable metals such as silver, gold, manganese, cobalt, and zinc. A black smoker or deep sea vent is a type of hydrothermal vent found on the seabed, typically in the bathyal zone (with largest frequency in depths from 2500 m to 3000 m), but also in lesser depths as well as deeper in abyssal zone. Some deep-seafloor microbes still alive after 100 million years! April 21, 2006. As shown to the right, they have a rich community of species. Exploring Hot Deep-Sea Vents for Signs of Extreme Life . In the deep sea, bioluminescence is extremely common, and because the deep sea is so vast, bioluminescence may be the most common form of communication on the planet! NOAA Okeanos Explorer Program / FLICKR/ (CC-BY-NC-SA 2.0). They continuously spew super-hot, mineral-rich water that helps support a diverse commun… Destruction of deep sea habitats could mean the loss of species both known and not yet discovered. July 3, 2011. Seawater in hydrothermal vents may reach temperatures of over 700° Fahrenheit. What are the most stable habitats on earth? The new data also may apply to other spreading ridges, such as those in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. Where might life have originated on earth? Copyright © 1996-2020 The Pew Charitable Trusts. One scheme for deep sea mining involves vehicles going down to hydrothermal vents. These are formally known as rift zones – where the movement of tectonic plates is tearing the earth’s crust apart. That means they are only detectable when a vent is nearby. 449, September 1, 2016, p. 186. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.05.031. Near these plate boundaries, seawater seeps down and gets heated by molten rock. This is known as a hydrothermal vent. All rights reserved. (©2003 MBARI) by Smithsonian Ocean Team. Scientists think studying 'extremophiles' in toxic hydrothermal vents could teach us about potential extraterrestrial life. E. Sohn. This hydrothermal vent chimney, called Mushroom, can be viewed online via a live HD camera. hydrothermal vent Openings at the bottom of the ocean or a lake where hot water emerges from deep inside the earth. Vent zones contain polymetallic sulfides rich in copper and zinc. However, Individual Vents Often Become Plugged Up, While New Vents Can Appear In Far Flung Parts Of The Ocean. July 29, 2003. What are the tallest mountains on earth? A new sensor helped researchers find many hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean that would have been missed using previous methods. That was far more than had been expected, based on previous vent counts. Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are one of the seafloor environments now being targeted for mining of their mineral resources, because the “chimneys” that form at vents are particularly rich in metals such as copper that we need for modern technology. Vent hunters typically search by sight. Benthos is the community of organisms which live on, in, or near the seabed, the area known as the benthic zone. Then the hot water erupts back up as an underwater hot spring. Many scientists are concerned, arguing that all vent zones, active or inactive, should be afforded strong environmental protections and that the active zones should be covered by a general no-mining prohibition. False. It helped them find vents they otherwise would have missed. Examples include tropical reefs, rainforests, alpine meadows and polar tundra. The spewed chemicals don’t hang around long once they leave the vent. Using an ROV to search vast swaths of the seafloor and entire seamount ridges for vents would be “virtually impossible and incredibly time consuming,” according to Martin. The water is rich in minerals and chemicals that can nourish ecosystems of worms, clams, microbes and other organisms. Deep along the sunless seafloor, some of those tectonic plates pull apart. Sea water seeps down into the cracks and fissures created by the spreading of the sea floor, sometimes as much as two or three miles into the earth’s crust. Going bright may help corals recover from bleaching. Some vent zones feature substantial concentrations of gold and silver. For deep-sea animals living under harsh conditions, whale falls provide important sources of food. Since the discovery of hydrothermal vents in the late 1970s, it has been shown that microbes are ubiquitous in and around hot and warm seafloor vents driven by volcanic heat. Deep-sea seamounts. Figure 2: Deep Sea Mining. Near-term actions could safeguard active hydrothermal vent sites and ensure better protection for the seabed. And vents with lower temperatures tend to release few particles. Scientists and engineers often rely on sensors to inform them of conditions that may change over time or that exist far from where a researcher can measure them directly. article How Oil Feeds the Deep Sea. Solved:Fracture repair 2. In either case, the hot solution emerging into cold seawater precipitates mineral deposits that are rich in iron, copper, zinc, and other metals. The ISA is considering regulations that would govern vent zone mining. “They’re not all big,” Baker says of the new hydrothermal vents. E. Sohn. When these chemicals mix with seawater, they create slight changes in its electrical properties. D. Powell. Superheated fluids of 350 degrees Celsius (662 degrees Fahrenheit) and above rise from within the Earth’s crust through cracks in the seabed and are ejected into the water column through smoking chimneys. Deep-sea hydrothermal plumes occur where seafloor vents inject hydrothermal fluids replete with potential microbial energy sources such as H 2 S, Fe, Mn, CH 4, and H 2 into the deep oceans. ... paths testify to the complexity of microbial composition on the seafloor, ... Deep-sea … The seafloor covers more than half of the Earth's surface. This subset of the InterRidge Vents Database maps the locations of the total known (241) deep-sea vent fields that were confirmed active by observations at the seafloor at depths greater than 200 m, as of year 2016. Deepsea mining operations typically occur at depths of 4500 ft. to 12,000 ft. around areas with metallic nodules, as well as areas with high levels of geothermal activity. Free educator resources are available for this article. Founded in 2003, Science News for Students is a free, award-winning online publication dedicated to providing age-appropriate science news to learners, parents and educators. Life's Building Blocks Form In Replicated Deep Sea Vents. Marine life such as giant tube worms (shown), shrimp and fish huddle around the warm, sunless water that surrounds hydrothermal vents. J. Rehmeyer. however, individual vents often become plugged up, while new vents can appear in far flung parts of the ocean. They provide precious heat to the near freezing abyssal waters of the deep as … De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "deep sea vents" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. Iron is an important nutrient for lots of marine life. molten A word describing something that is melted, such as the liquid rock that makes up lava. S. Ornes. The U.N. General Assembly has called for States to manage risks to the marine biodiversity of hydrothermal vents1 and has committed States to protect vulnerable marine ecosystems, including hydrothermal vents.2 Parties to the Convention on Biodiversity recognized hydrothermal vents as “ecologically and biologically significant areas” where enhanced conservation and management measures would be needed. New Deep-Sea Vents and Volcanic Activity Discovered in the Mariana Back-Arc. Dive and Discover’s Expedition 6 returns to the Galápagos Rift, where seafloor hydrothermal vents were first found in 1977. deep-sea currents that aid or hinder the dispersal of vent larvae; and; migrations of species (over evolutionary history) between vents and other seafloor habitats that foster chemosynthetic ecosystems. Positive control… Next Post. Life without Sunlight at Deep-sea Hot Springs. Studies of vents could yield new knowledge and new products. Vent in the seafloor where hot water issues from the earth into the ocean. The victim of that reaction is said to have been “oxidized,” and the oxidizing agent (the thief) is “reduced.” The oxidized molecule makes itself whole again by robbing an electron from another molecule. People who work in this field are geneticists. This problem has been solved! By Yasemin Saplakoglu - Staff Writer 28 January 2020. Providing enormous fluxes of heat and mass to oceans, deep-sea hydrothermal vents are among the most spectacular features on the seafloor along mid-ocean ridges. Investigations of vent zones have transformed studies on the origin of life on Earth and may help uncover clues for finding life on other planets. “The thought was that making methanethiol from these basic ingredients at seafloor hydrothermal vents should therefore have been an easy process,” adds Reeves. But the landscape is very different where cracks in the seafloor allow molten rock to well up from below. October 3, 2006. By some estimates, seafloor methane contained in frozen formations along the continental margins may equal or exceed the total amount of coal, oil, and gas in all other reservoirs worldwide. Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents. The Microbes That Keep Hydrothermal Vents Pumping These tubeworm colonies grow where hot, mineral-laden water flows out of the seafloor in undersea hot springs. A Hot and Deep Origin of Methane in Seafloor Hydrothermal Springs . Hydrothermal vents are veritable deep-sea geysers, located where the ocean crust is so thin that seawater percolates through it, eventually reaching the depths of the magma chamber. The sensor detects small changes in the electrical properties of water caused by chemicals released from the vents. November 2, 2004. As the water moves upward it brings with it dissolved minerals, such as iron. Deep diving research submarines have been constructed to withstand the three-tons-per-square-inch pressure at the ocean floor. “Bugs with gas.” Science News for Students. Any new vent-protection requirements issued by the ISA would be in keeping with multilateral precedent.3. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, “Study Tests Theory That Life Originated at Deep Sea Vents,” news release, April 9, 2014, L. Levin et al., “Hydrothermal Vents and Methane Seeps: Rethinking the Sphere of Influence,”. Oxidation reactions with molecules in living cells are so violent that they can cause cell death. Register to access: Already Registered? The deep sea. They also note that mining any vent site, active or inactive, would inflict additional damages to neighboring species and habitats by the sediment plumes that extraction would create. tectonic plates The gigantic slabs — some spanning thousands of kilometers (or miles) across — that make up Earth’s outer layer. Mining at deep-sea vents: what are the impacts on marine life? Iron released from the vents can travel thousands of kilometers and is used by ocean life worldwide. Previous Post. Precious Metals from Deep-Sea Vents. However, individual vents often become plugged up, while new vents can appear in far flung parts of the ocean. E. Sohn. These include unoxidized iron and sulfur. But they’re places that likely support ecosystems,” he notes. New estimates of vent field populations on ocean ridges from precise mapping of hydrothermal discharge locations. In either case, the hot solution emerging into cold seawater precipitates mineral deposits that are rich in iron, copper, zinc, and other metals. oxidation A process that involves one molecule’s theft of an electron from another. “Animals without oxygen, underwater.” Science News for Students. Microbes are known to live without light or oxygen inside this basalt outcrop feeding on chemicals from the volcano. U.N. General Assembly, “Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks” (1995). Post was not sent - check your e-mail addresses! These vehicles are tethered and operated remotely, and they gather materials by breaking rock apart. Shares. Throughout the oceans of the world there exist undersea mountain ranges, which have formed as result of volcanic activity. Hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean are much more common than scientists had thought, new research shows. As shown to the… More » Expert Answer. December 26, 2004. Van Dover et al., “Scientific Rationale and International Obligations for Protection of Active Hydrothermal Vent Ecosystems From Deep-Sea Mining,”. Answer Hydrothermal vents have been found all over the ocean, including regions of the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern and Arctic oceans. Microbial communities on vents contribute to the global cycling of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and heavy metals. E. Sohn. Baker and his colleagues went looking for vents using a special new sensor. One challenge in the long-term observation of hydrothermal plumes is … oceanographic) The branch of science that deals with the physical and biological properties and phenomena of the oceans. Hydrothermal vents are like geysers in the deep ocean on the seafloor. In particular, scientists have been faced with a puzzle. Next to familiar creatures such as fish, shrimp, mussels, and snails, one also finds stalked barnacles (first described in 2018), yeti crabs (2015), scaly footed snails (2015) and other surprising species that do not owe their existence to sunlight. Sulfur, one of the most common elements in the universe, is an essential element for life. Hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean typically form along the mid-ocean ridges, such as the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.These are locations where two tectonic plates are diverging and new crust is being formed.. The deep sea, more than half the world’s surface, contains more cobalt, nickel, copper, manganese and rare earth metals than all land reserves combined, according to the US Geological Survey. Subsea mining, or deep sea mining, is a method of retrieving minerals from the ocean floor. Conserving Marine Life in the United States, Ending Overfishing in Northwestern Europe, International Boreal Conservation Campaign, Protecting Coastal Wetlands and Coral Reefs, U.S. Public Lands and Rivers Conservation, Deep-Sea Mining on Hydrothermal Vents Threatens Biodiversity (PDF), https://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/50/ares50-24.htm, https://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/4512573.18258286.html, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2018.01.020, https://www.whoi.edu/press-room/news-release/study-tests-theory-that-life-originated-at-deep-sea-vents, Science and Flexibility Improves Ocean Conservation in East Africa, Bering Sea Western Interior at Risk of Resource Extraction, Ocean Protections Seen as Key to Countering Climate Change. - From where hot water passes up through the ocean floor, as it cools, the dissolved minerals (sulfides of iron, copper, zinc) precipitate out - Found in depths of 1500 m to 4000 m and a pressure in excess of 200-300 atmospheres (20 - 30 megapascals). – The Deepest Point On Earth Is 11 kilometer Deep In The Mariana Trench, Near The Mariana Islands. They’re often found in areas with underwater volcanic activity, where moving tectonic plates create fissures in the ocean floor.
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